DOI: 10.25881/20728255_2022_17_2_141

Authors

Morgoshiia T.SH., Kalashnikova V.D.

FGBUZ Saint-Petersburg clinical hospital of RAS, Saint Petersburg

Abstract

The life and work of academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences Yu.Yu. Dzhanelidze is analyzed. The main merits and achievements of the scientist were noted. It is noted that in 1905, for his participation in revolutionary student unrest, he was expelled from Kharkiv University. He completed his medical education in Switzerland. It is shown that in 1910 he returned to Russia and, having received a doctor’s degree from Moscow University, worked from 1911 to 1914 at the St. Petersburg Women’s Medical Institute at the Department of Hospital Surgery headed by A.A. Kadyan. The long-term clinical activity of Yu.Yu. Dzhanelidze in Leningrad is analyzed. Since 1932, he headed the Leningrad Institute of Emergency Medicine. Since 1939, he was appointed Chief Surgeon of the Navy and at the same time since 1943, head of the Department of Hospital Surgery of the Naval Medical Academy. Yu.Yu. Dzhanelidze published more than 100 scientific papers on general and reconstructive surgery, traumatology and surgery of the heart, large vessels. He successfully performed surgery on a patient with a heart injury (1911) and sewed up the wound of the ascending aorta for the first time in the world (1913). The experience of surgical treatment of heart wounds was summarized in the monograph “Heart wounds and their surgical treatment” (1927). He paid much attention to surgical diseases of the abdominal organs, especially acute appendicitis and intestinal obstruction. He proposed methods of surgical treatment of aneurysms of large vessels, creation of a functional hip stump during amputation, original methods of reduction of shoulder dislocations, treatment of patellar fractures, habitual dislocations of the head of the ulna. A number of his works were devoted to skin grafting and plastic surgery. For the monograph “Bronchial fistulas of gunshot origin” he was awarded the USSR State Prize. It is emphasized that in the last years of his life he paid much attention to the development of problems of surgery of the heart and large vessels, the treatment of thermal burns.

Keywords: Yu.Yu. Dzhanelidze, biography, chief surgeon of the Navy, general surgery, traumatology, “Heart wounds and their surgical treatment”, “Bronchial fistulas of gunshot origin”, Leningrad Research Institute of Ambulance.

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For citation

Morgoshiia T.SH., Kalashnikova V.D. Yu.Yu. Dzhanelidze (1883–1950) — an outstanding Soviet scientist-innovator (on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of the founding of the Scientific and Practical Institute of Emergency Medicine in Leningrad). Bulletin of Pirogov National Medical & Surgical Center. 2022;2(17):141-145. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.25881/20728255_2022_17_2_141