DOI: 10.25881/BPNMSC.2020.87.11.020

Авторы

Салимов Д.Ш.1, Крайнюков П.Е.1, 4, Воробьев А.А.2, Калашников А.В.3, Травин Н.О.1

ФКУ «Центральный военный клинический госпиталь имени П.В. Мандрыка» МО РФ, Москва

2 Волгоградский медицинский университет, Волгоград

Пятигорский медико-фармацевтический институт — филиал Волгоградского медицинского университета, Пятигорск

4 Российский университет дружбы народов, Москва

Аннотация

В обзоре представлены исторические сведения, связанные со становлением и развитием метода дренирования плевральной полости при различных патологических состояниях, сопровождающихся развитием пневмоторакса, гидроторакса, в том числе эмпиемы плевры. Показаны роль и значение плеврального дренажа в неотложной торакальной хирургии и травматологии. Прослежена хронология способов, применяемых для их ликвидации, начиная с античной медицины, и до наших дней, изложен вклад великих хирургов прошлого (Ларрей, Бильрот, Дюпюитрен, Бюлау и других) в данный раздел торакальной хирургии. Приведены ссылки на редкие факты и литературные источники, излагающие пути решения проблем, связанных с дренированием плевральной полости и расправлением легкого: эволюция профилактики попадания воздуха в плевральную полость в процессе дренирования, аспирационные и «клапанные» методы. Описываются основные виды дренажных систем и устройств, катетеров, применяемых для дренирования. Обсуждаются вопросы выбора оптимального места дренирования, контроля установки дренажа и его функционирования, сроков стояния дренажей, профилактики типичных ошибок. Проанализированы осложнения, сопровождающие процесс дренирования плевральной полости, в том числе мало освещенный в медицинских публикациях отек легкого после расправления.

Ключевые слова: плевральная полость, пневмоторакс, гидроторакс, эмпиема, дренирование.

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